1775 The Marine Corps, the toughest corps of the US military, is established.
1836 The king of the Greeks, Otho, marries the daughter of the Grand Duke of Oldenburg, Maria, who will take the name Amalia.
1862 Demonstrations in Athens in favor of the candidacy for the Greek throne of Prince Alfred, second son of Queen Victoria of England.
1871 Investigative journalist Henry Morton Stanley discovers the long-lost Scottish missionary and explorer, David Livingstone, in a jungle cave in the heart of Africa. Stanley’s first sentence has remained historic: “Dr. Livingstone I suppose?’
1885 In Germany, Gottlieb Daimler, who would later found Mercedes, builds the first motorcycle. It is only 264 cc. and reaches a maximum speed of 12 km per hour. She is driven by Paul’s son.
1913 The Turkish government closes seven Greek newspapers in Istanbul. Protest of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
1918 The “Socialist Labor Party of Greece”, SEKE, is founded in Greece.
1924 Riots and clashes break out in Kavala, between tobacco workers on one side, and the army and gendarmerie on the other. During the incidents, a worker and a Gendarmerie officer are killed.
1939 The first car with air conditioning is presented at an exhibition in Chicago, USA.
[1945 Communist Ember Hoxha takes over the government of Albania.
1949 OTE gets its first subscriber!
1972 Hijacked Southern Airways flight from Alabama at risk of crashing into nuclear facility. After two full days, the plane lands in Havana, Cuba, where the hijackers are imprisoned by Fidel Castro.
1983 Bill Gates introduces Windows 1.0.
1989 Teodor Zhivkov is leaving the leadership of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian Communist Party, after 35 years in power.
1994 With an official statement by Saddam Hussein, Iraq recognizes the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of the State of Kuwait and promises not to violate their borders.
1997 The Personal Data Protection Authority begins its operation. The respect and protection of dignity, private life and the free development of the personality are a fundamental and primary pursuit of every democratic society. ristoforos, honorary Councilor of the State.
2008 The deputy of Arcadia, Petros Tatoulis, is removed from the party and the parliamentary group of “New Democracy”, after his interview in a newspaper, where he strongly criticized the Prime Minister, Kostas Karamanlis.
1483 Martin LutherGerman monk and religious reformer
1759 Friedrich SchillerGerman author and historian
1919 Mikhail Kalashnikov, Russian military and weapons designer
1919 Spyros Pissanos, Greek aviator
1925 Richard BartonWelsh stage and film actor who was nominated seven times for an Academy Award (6 times for the Academy Award for Best Actor and once for the Academy Award for Supporting Actor) but never managed to win.
But he did win a BAFTA in 1966, a Golden Globe twice (1953 for Best New Actor and 1978 for Best Actor) and a Tony Award for Best Actor in 1961.
Despite the fact that the actor did not study acting, he was one of the best and highest paid actors in Hollywood. His most important films were: My Cousin Rachel, The Cloak, Alexander the Great, Cleopatra, The Spy Who Came Back from the Cold, Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, Anne of a Thousand Days and Ecvus.
He was married five times, twice to actress Elizabeth Taylor, with whom he had a stormy relationship that often graced the front pages of magazines. The two actors were first married in Montreal on March 15, 1964, creating one of the most famous couples in Hollywood.
Burton was an alcoholic, drinking 3-4 bottles of vodka a day. He did detox but at the age of 41, he was already facing serious health problems and of course cirrhosis of the liver. An avid smoker as well, he will die of a cerebral hemorrhage on August 5, 1984 at his home in Switzerland at the age of 58.
1928 Ennio Morricone, Italian composer, arranger, conductor and former trumpeter, who has written music for more than 500 films and television series, as well as contemporary works of classical music.
Morricone’s music has been used in more than 60 award-winning films. He was born in Rome and by the time he was 18 he had composed more than 100 pieces of classical music.
For the recording company RCA he orchestrated over 500 songs. But he became world famous by composing music for Italian Westerns by directors such as Sergio Leone, Duccio Tessari and Sergio Corbucci, such as the Dollar Trilogy (For a Handful of Dollars, Duel in El Paso and The Good, the Bad and the Ugly). He also wrote the official song for the 1978 FIFA World Cup.
Since the late 1970s, he has composed scores for several Oscar-winning films, including Days of Heaven, The Mission, The Incorruptible, Cinema Paradise and Bugsy. Morricone also collaborated with Italian director Giuseppe Tornatore. In the 21st century, his music was reused on television and in films such as those of Quentin Tarantino: Kill Bill (2003), Death Proof (2007), Insolent Bastards (2009) and Django: The Punisher (2012).
In 2007, Morricone received an honorary Oscar “for his magnificent and multifaceted contribution to the art of film music.” He was nominated for five more Oscars between 1979 and 2001. He also received the Oscar for Best Original Score in 2016 for the score of the film “The Hateful 8”. He has won three Grammy Awards, three Golden Globes, six BAFTAs, two European Film Awards, an honorary Golden Lion and a Polar Music Award.
He passed away on July 6, 2020, at the age of 91, in a hospital in Italy.
1969 Jens LehmannGerman soccer player
1969 Helen Pompeo, American actress, the protagonist of the series “Grey’s Anatomy”
1985 Alexander Kolarov, Serbian football player
1891 Arthur Rimbaud, French poet
1938 Mustafa Kemal AtaturkTurkish military and politician, founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey.
He essentially took over a fragmented Ottoman Empire in a coup d’état. Under Atatürk, minorities in Turkey were required to speak Turkish in public, but were allowed to keep their own language at the same time. Non-Turkish place names and minorities were ordered to take a Turkish surname according to Turkish traditions. He is considered a charismatic leader, whose figure, according to historians, is among the most important personalities who had a decisive influence with their presence in the 20th century. The Turkish parliament awarded him the surname Atatürk in 1934, meaning “Father of the Turks”, in recognition of the role he played in building the modern Turkish Republic.
His father was the Muslim Ali Riza who died when Mustafa was seven years old. His mother was Zubeide Khanum, originally from the town of Lagada. Because of Thessaloniki’s large Jewish community during the Ottoman period, many of his Islamist opponents who were disturbed by his reforms claimed that Atatürk had Donme ancestors; Jews who converted to Islam publicly but still secretly maintained their faith in Judaism .
He was born between March 13, 1880 and March 12, 1881 in the then Ottoman Thessaloniki. After his father’s death, his mother fled to her brother’s house in the village of Sariyar-Chrysavgi of Lagadas. He left a few years later, returning again to Thessaloniki where he lived with his aunt, Hatitze. At the age of twelve, and despite his mother’s objections, he was admitted to the lower military school of Thessaloniki and then studied at the Military School of the Monastery, to end up in 1899 at the Imperial Military Academy of Constantinople. He excelled in mathematics and adopted the name Kemal, which means “perfection”.
In 1905 he founded a secret political union, which he called Vatan ve Hürriyet, which in Turkish means Homeland and Freedom. He managed to initiate several officers and create branches in Thessaloniki. The outbreak of the First Balkan War found him in Gallipoli, where shortly afterwards he was promoted to lieutenant colonel and appointed military attaché in Sofia, Bulgaria. In the operations of the First World War he managed to distinguish himself, as a result of which he became the commander of the 2nd Army Corps, with which he served in the Caucasus in the operations of 1916, and then he was promoted to Pasha.
On November 17, 1922, Sultan Muhammad VI left Constantinople, effectively handing it over to the government of Ankara. On October 29, 1923, Kemal was sworn in as the first president of the now united Turkey, a position he held until 1938, the date of his death, having previously won the elections of 1927, 1931 and 1935. Of course, since 1930 he had abolished the opposition parties with the result that his own, the People’s Democratic Party, is alone in the Parliament.
Kemal modernized his country, implementing radical changes and seeking to transform it into a modern European country, completely freed from religion.
In 1924 he closed the institutions that operated under Islamic law. He banned polygamy, the fereze and the fez, while in 1928 he imposed the Latin alphabet in place of the Arabic. In 1938, by law he obliged every Turk to acquire a family surname, keeping for himself Atatürk, that is, father of the Turks. He upgraded the role of women, giving them the right to vote, and established gender equality, while the Gregorian calendar was also established during his tenure. In 1934 it allowed the election of women to public office. In the same year he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by the former Greek Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos.
On the diplomatic side, Kemal proceeded with the slogan “peace at home and peace in the world”, a policy that generally succeeded, since Turkey maintained peaceful relations with its neighbors. It is worth noting that in 1936, Turkey succeeded in signing the Treaty of Montreux, which regained control of the Straits and which was considered a great success of Kemalist foreign policy.
He had married in 1923 but divorced two years later. She had adopted 8 children, of whom Sabiha Gökçen later became the world’s first female pilot. The house where Atatürk was born was donated by the municipality of Thessaloniki to the Turkish state in 1935 and has since housed the Atatürk Museum.
1938 George Stratigis, Greek writer
1982 Leonid Brezhnev, Soviet politician
2006 Jack PalanceAmerican actor
2007 Norman Mailer, American writer
2009 Notis Pergialis, Greek writer
2010 Dino de Laurentiis, Italian film producer
2015 Helmut SchmidtGerman politician